The 17-times Grand Slam champion was absent from one of the sport's four majors was at the 1999 U.S. Open.
The 34-year-old world number three, who has been plagued�by knee and back injuries this year.
Last week, Federer played at the Italian Open and lost to Dominic Thiem in the third round. He withdrew from the Madrid Open the previous week because of back pain.
"I�regret to announce that I have made the decision not to play in this year's French Open. I have been making steady progress with my overall fitness, but I am still not 100% and feel I might be taking an unnecessary risk by playing in this event before I am really ready," wrote the world No 3.